Prognostic Outcomes of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study
Keywords: 
Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Dermatología
Immunosuppression
Immunocompromised
Solid organ transplant
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
Prognosis
Non-melanoma skin cancer
Recurrence
Metastasis
Issue Date: 
2023
Publisher: 
MDPI
Note: 
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Citation: 
Salido-Vallejo, R. (Rafael); Escribano-Castillo, L. (Lourdes); Antoñanzas, J. (Javier); et al. "Prognostic Outcomes of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study". Journal of Clinical Medicine. 12, 2023, 7619
Abstract
Introduction: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common cutaneous neoplasm, and its incidence is on the rise. While most cSCCs have an excellent prognosis, certain risk factors, especially immunosuppression, have been associated with higher rates of local recurrence (LR), metastasis, and poor prognosis. This study aims to assess the risk factors for LR and metastasis development in cSCC among solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and compare these rates with those in immunocompetent patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study included cSCC cases from the University Hospital Reina Sofía in Córdoba, Spain, between 2002 and 2019. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were collected. Local recurrence and metastasis rates were analyzed, along with progression-free survival. Univariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors in SOTRs. Results: Among 849 cSCC cases, we found higher rates of local recurrence and metastasis in tumors developed by SOTRs compared to those in immunocompetent individuals. However, no significant differences in local recurrence, metastasis, or progression-free survival were observed between the two groups. Risk factors for adverse outcomes in SOTRs included tumor size > 2 cm, depth > 4 mm, and a higher Clark level. A total of 34.4% of SOTRs developed a second primary cSCC during the follow-up. Conclusions: In our study, cSCCs in SOTRs did not exhibit statistically significant differences in the rates of adverse outcomes compared to immunocompetent patients. The prognosis of cSCCs in SOTRs may be more related to other tumor-dependent risk factors than to the immunosuppression status itself. Future studies are needed to refine risk stratification and follow-up protocols to ensure the optimal management of high-risk cSCC cases, particularly among immunosuppressed patients.

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