Classification of vestibular signs and examination techniques: Nystagmus and nystagmus-like movements
Keywords: 
Types of nystagmus
Oscillatory eye movements
Neurological disorders
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
Ios press
ISSN: 
1878-6464
Note: 
This article is published online with Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0).
Citation: 
Eggers, S.D.Z. (Scott D. Z.); Bisdorff, A. (Alexandre); Brevern, M. (Michael); et al. "Classification of vestibular signs and examination techniques: Nystagmus and nystagmus-like movements". Journal of Vestibular Research,. 29 (2-3), 2019, 57 - 87
Abstract
This paper presents a classification and definitions for types of nystagmus and other oscillatory eye movements relevant to evaluation of patients with vestibular and neurological disorders, formulated by the Classification Committee of the Bar´ any Society, to facilitate identification and communication for research and clinical care. Terminology surrounding the ´ numerous attributes and influencing factors necessary to characterize nystagmus are outlined and defined. The classification first organizes the complex nomenclature of nystagmus around phenomenology, while also considering knowledge of anatomy, pathophysiology, and etiology. Nystagmus is distinguished from various other nystagmus-like movements including saccadic intrusions and oscillations.

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