Collaborative human–robot interaction interface: development for a spinal surgery robotic assistan
Keywords: 
Hand-guiding.
Human robot interface.
Collaborative surgical robotics.
Transpedicular fixation technology.
Issue Date: 
2021
Publisher: 
Springer
Project: 
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MINECO/Retos Colaboración: Proyectos de I+D+i/RTC-2015-3871-1620079695/PAIS VASCO/MAXILARIS
ISSN: 
1875-4791
Note: 
Early access.
Citation: 
Amarillo, A., Sanchez, E., Caceres, J., & Oñativia, J. (2021). Collaborative human–robot interaction interface: Development for a spinal surgery robotic assistant. International Journal of Social Robotics, 1-12.
Abstract
The growing introduction of robotics in non-industrial applications where the environment is unstructured and changing, has led to the need of development of safer and more intuitive, human-robot interfaces. In such environments, the use of collaborative robots has potential benefits, due to the combination of user experience, knowledge and flexibility with the robot's accuracy, stiffness and repeatability. Nevertheless, in order to guarantee a functional collaboration in these environments, the interaction between user and robot must be intuitive, natural, fast and easy to use. On one hand, commercial collaborative robots are less accurate and less stiff than the traditional industrial ones, on the other hand, the later have not intuitive interaction interfaces. There are tasks in which the stiffness of industrial robots and the intuitive interaction interfaces of collaborative commercial robots, are desirable. This is the case of some robotic assisted surgical procedures, such as robotic assisted spine surgery, with high accuracy demands and with the need of intuitive surgeon-robot interaction. This paper presents a hand guiding methodology for functional human-robot collaboration and the introduction of novel algorithms to enhance its behavior. Also its implementation on a robotic surgical assistant for spine procedures is presented. It is emphasized how a traditional industrial robot can be used as a collaborative one when the available commercial collaborative robots do not have the required accuracy and stiffness for the task.

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