Mucosal immunization with Shigella flexneri outer membrane vesicles induced protection in mice
Camacho AI, de Souza J, Sánchez-Gómez S, Pardo-Ros M, Irache JM, Gamazo C. Mucosal immunization with Shigella flexneri outer membrane vesicles induced protection in mice. Vaccine 2011 10/26;29(46):8222-8229
Vaccination appears to be the only rational prophylactic approach to control shigellosis. Unfortunately, there is still no safe and efficacious vaccine available. We investigated the protection conferred by a new vaccine containing outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Shigella flexneri with an adjuvant based on nanoparticles in an experimental model of shigellosis in mice. OMVs were encapsulated in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles prepared by a solvent displacement method with the copolymer PMV/MA. OMVs loaded into NPs (NP-OMVs) were homogeneous and spherical in shape, with a size of 197 nm (PdI = 0.06). BALB/c mice (females, 9-week-old, 20 ± 1 g) were immunized by intradermal, nasal, ocular (20 μg) or oral route (100 μg) with free or encapsulated OMV. Thirty-five days after administration, mice were infected intranasally with a lethal dose of S. flexneri (1 × 107 CFU). The new vaccine was able to protect fully against infection when it was administered via mucosa. By intradermal route the NP-OMVs formulation increased the protection from 20%, obtained with free extract, to 100%. Interestingly, both OMVs and OMV-NP induced full protection when administered by the nasal and conjuntival route. A strong association between the ratio of IL-12p40/IL-10 and protection was found. Moreover, low levels of IFN-γ correlate with protection. Under the experimental conditions used, the adjuvant did not induce any adverse effects. These results place OMVs among promising candidates to be used for vaccination against Shigellosis.