Flow in an hourglass: particle friction and stiffness matter
Granular flow
Hopper flow
Granular dynamics
Granular materials
Issue Date: 
CALIPER (No. 812638)
NKFIH (OTKA K 116036 and 134199)
DAAD/TKA researcher exchange program (Grant No. 274464)
Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence
Pongó, T. (Tivadar); Stiga, V. (Viktória); Torok, J. (János); et al. "Flow in an hourglass: particle friction and stiffness matter". New Journal of Physics. 23, 2021, 023001
Granular flow out of a silo is studied experimentally and numerically. The time evolution of the discharge rate as well as the normal force (apparent weight) at the bottom of the container is monitored. We show that particle stiffness has a strong effect on the qualitative features of silo discharge. For deformable grains with a Young modulus of about Ym ¿ 40 kPa in a silo with basal pressure of the order of 4 kPa, lowering the friction coefficient leads to a gradual change in the discharge curve: the flow rate becomes filling height dependent, it decreases during the discharge process. For hard grains with a Young modulus of about Ym ¿ 500 MPa the flow rate is much less sensitive to the value of the friction coefficient. Using DEM data combined with a coarse-graining methodology allows us to compute all the relevant macroscopic fields, namely, linear momentum, density and stress tensors. The observed difference in the discharge in the low friction limit is connected to a strong difference in the pressure field: while for hard grains Janssen-screening is effective, leading to high vertical stress near the silo wall and small pressure above the orifice region, for deformable grains the pressure above the orifice is larger and gradually decreases during the discharge process. We have analyzed the momentum balance in the region of the orifice (near the location of the outlet) for the case of soft particles with low friction coefficient, and proposed a phenomenological...

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