Lead levels in retail samples of spanish infant formulae and their contribution to dietary intake of infants
Infant formula
Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV)
Drinking water
Daily intake
Provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI)
Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Química médica
Issue Date: 
Navarro-Blasco, I. (Íñigo); Alvarez, J.I. (José Ignacio). "Lead levels in retail samples of spanish infant formulae and their contribution to dietary intake of infants". Food Additives & Contaminants. 22 (8), 2005, 726 - 734
Lead concentrations in a total of 82 different types of infant formulae (cow’s milk and soy based) marked in Spain were analysed by acid-microwave decomposition and anodic stripping voltammetry. Dietary lead intake from infant formula and tap water used for powder formula reconstitution were estimated in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Additionally, the influence of physical state (powder and ready to use formulae), the type of container used and the impact of industrial process from different manufacturers on lead levels were evaluated. According to our results, lead exposure from drinking water was negligible with respect to formulae investigated; where soya formulae contributed the highest intake (58 – 73 % PTWI), non adapted starter and specialised formulae gave an moderate intake (31 – 42 and 26 – 37 % PTWI, respectively) and, finally, pre-term, adapted starter and follow up formulae provided the lowest lead intake (22 – 25, 22 – 26 and 16 – 22 % PTWI, respectively). Based on the current state of knowledge about lead toxicity, manufacturers are called to make an additional effort in order to keep a maximum lead level at 20 g l-1 for all infant formulae, although it is recommendable that these formulations supply the upper limit (5 g l-1) of “normal” human milk.

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