A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessment of oral antibiotics for pyelonephritis
Keywords: 
Administration, oral
Anti-bacterial agents
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
Modelling
Simulation
Issue Date: 
2019
Publisher: 
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
ISSN: 
0934-9723
Note: 
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Citation: 
Cattral, J.W.S. (J. W. S.); Asin, E. (E.); Freeman, J. (J.); et al. "A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessment of oral antibiotics for pyelonephritis". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 38, 2019, 2311 - 2321
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance to oral antibiotics recommended for pyelonephritis is increasing. The objective was to determine if there is a pharmacological basis to consider alternative treatments/novel dosing regimens for the oral treatment of pyelonephritis. A systematic review identified pharmacokinetic models of suitable quality for a selection of antibiotics with activity against Escherichia coli. MIC data was obtained for a population of E. coli isolates derived from patients with pyelonephritis. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) simulations determined probability of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fraction response (CFR) values for sub-populations of the E. coli population at varying doses. There are limited high-quality models available for the agents investigated. Pharmacokinetic models of sufficient quality for simulation were identified for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, and fosfomycin trometamol. These antibiotics were predicted to have PTAs ≥ 0.85 at or below standard doses for the tested E. coli population including cephalexin 1500 mg 8 hourly for 22% of the population (MIC ≤ 4 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin 100 mg 12 hourly for 71% of the population (MIC ≤ 0.06 mg/L). For EUCAST-susceptible E. coli isolates, doses achieving CFRs ≥ 0.9 included amoxicillin 2500 mg 8 hourly, cephalexin 4000 mg 6 hourly, ciprofloxacin 200 mg 12 hourly, and 3000 mg of fosfomycin 24 hourly. Limitations in the PK data support carrying out additional PK studies in populations of interest. Oral antibiotics including amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cephalexin have potential to be effective for a proportion of patients with pyelonephritis. Ciprofloxacin may be effective at lower doses than currently prescribed.

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