Alcohol, drinking pattern, and chronic disease
Keywords: 
Alcohol
Mediterranean alcohol drinking pattern
Mediterranean diet
Clinical trial
Binge drinking
Mendelian randomization
Moderate consumption
Abstinence
Issue Date: 
2022
ISSN: 
2072-6643
Note: 
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/)
Citation: 
Barbería-Latasa, M. (María); Gea-Sánchez, A. (Alfredo); Martínez-González, M. (Miguel Ángel). "Alcohol, Drinking Pattern, and Chronic Disease". Nutrients. 14 (9), 2022, 1954
Abstract
This review discusses the inconsistent recommendations on alcohol consumption and its association with chronic disease, highlighting the need for an evidence-based consensus. Alcohol is an addictive substance consumed worldwide, especially in European countries. Recommendations on alcohol consumption are controversial. On one hand, many nonrandomized studies defend that moderate consumption has a beneficial cardiovascular effect or a lower risk of all-cause mortality. On the other hand, alcohol is associated with an increased risk of cancer, neurological diseases, or injuries, among others. For years, efforts have been made to answer the question regarding the safe amount of alcohol intake, but controversies remain. Observational studies advocate moderate alcohol consumption following a Mediterranean pattern (red wine with meals avoiding binge drinking) as the best option for current drinkers. However, agencies such as the IARC recommend abstention from alcohol as it is a potent carcinogen. In this context, more randomized trial with larger sample size and hard clinical endpoints should be conducted to clarify the available evidence and provide clinicians with support for their clinical practice.

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