The BIDIAP index: a clinical, analytical and ultrasonographic score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children
Keywords: 
Appendicular caliber
BIDIAP index
Collinearity
Pediatric acute appendicitis
Peritoneal irritation
Score
Systemic immune-inflammation index
Issue Date: 
2023
Publisher: 
Springer
ISSN: 
1437-9813
Note: 
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Citation: 
Arredondo-Montero, J. (Javier); Bardají-Pascual, C. (Carlos); Antona, G. (Giuseppa); et al. "The BIDIAP index: a clinical, analytical and ultrasonographic score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children". Pediatric Surgery International. (39), 2023, 175
Abstract
Background: Pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA) continues to be a diagnostic challenge today. The diagnostic performance of classical indices is only moderate, especially in pediatric population. This study aimed to define a clinical, radiological and analytical index for the diagnosis of PAA. Materials and methods: This prospective study included 151 patients divided into two groups: (1) 53 patients with non-surgical abdominal pain (NSAP) and (2) 98 patients with a confirmed PAA. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared between groups using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher exact test. To identify the predictors of PAA, we performed a multivariable logistic regression using a forward stepwise analysis and we assigned multiples of integer values to the selected variables. The diagnostic performance of the index was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Intra-cohort calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results: We developed the BIDIAP index (BIomarkers for the DIagnosis of Appendicitis in Pediatrics), which included three variables that independently predicted higher odds of PAA: appendiceal caliber (≥ 6.9 mm), systemic immune-inflammation index (≥ 890) and peritoneal irritation, which scored 4, 3 and 2 points, respectively. Mean (SD) score of the participants was 2.38 (2.06) in group 1 and 7.89 (1.50) in group 2. The area under the ROC was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99). The cut-off point was established at 4 points, resulting in a sensitivity of 98.98% and a specificity of 77.78%. Conclusions: The BIDIAP index has an exceptional diagnostic performance in PAA. The importance of these results lies in its novelty and in the simplicity of the index. Although external validation will be necessary, initial results look promising.

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