Influencer advertising on TikTok: advert formats and illicit product advertising. A study involving Germany, France, Spain and Italy
Keywords: 
Redes sociales
publicidad
TikTok
formatos publicitarios
jóvenes
regulación
Issue Date: 
2023
Publisher: 
Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra
ISSN: 
2386-7876
Citation: 
Suárez-Álvarez, R. (Rebeca); Pastor-Rodríguez, Ana. "Influencer advertising on TikTok: advert formats and illicit product advertising. A study involving Germany, France, Spain and Italy". Communication & Society. 36 (3), 2023, 175 - 191
Abstract
Advertising by influencers on YouTube and Instagram has become a common practice, which includes the incorporation of advertising into their audio-visual productions as well. This study is being conducted to determine whether TikTok users from Germany, France, Spain, and Italy are using the social network to advertise products and services, and whether they are promoting products that are banned by TikTok. Using content analysis, 320 videos from 16 European tiktokers in Germany, France, Spain and Italy have been studied based on gender and nationality. The tiktokers ranged between 17 and 21 years of age with more than one million followers. The results confirm that tiktokers maintain a balance between the content they post and the advertising they insert. Both genders include a similar percentage of advertising and, based on nationality, French and Spanish tiktokers are the ones who use the most advertising in their work. Product placement is the most popular format for tiktokers of both genders in France, Spain and Germany, whereas branded content is preferred by Italian male tiktokers. None of the tiktokers of the four nationalities have violated the rules imposed by TikTok, as they have refrained from publishing illicit or dangerous products, either because of measures being taken by the social network itself to limit the exposure to these types of products, or as the result of self-regulation by the tiktokers in order to avoid being removed from the social network.
La inserción de contenidos publicitarios se ha convertido en una práctica habitual en las redes sociales de los influencers en YouTube e Instagram y comprende la incorporación de formatos publicitarios en sus producciones audiovisuales. Para averiguar si está ocurriendo lo mismo en TikTok, se analiza si los tiktokers de Alemania, Francia, España e Italia están utilizando esta red social para promocionar productos y servicios, y si en ellos incluyen publicidad de productos prohibidos por la red social. Mediante una metodología de análisis de contenido, se estudian 320 vídeos de 16 tiktokers europeos (Alemania, Francia, España e Italia) de entre 17 y 21 años con más de un millón de seguidores, a tenor de su sexo y nacionalidad. Los resultados confirman que los tiktokers mantienen un equilibrio entre los contenidos que publican y la publicidad que insertan. Los dos sexos incorporan similar porcentaje de publicidad, y por nacionalidad son los franceses y españoles los que más formatos publicitarios incorporan. El product placement es la fórmula preferida por titkokers de ambos géneros franceses, españoles y alemanes, y el branded content, por los tiktokers masculinos italianos. Ningún tiktoker de las cuatro nacionalidades infringe las directrices impuestas por TikTok publicando productos ilícitos o peligrosos, ya sea por las medidas tomadas por esta red social para limitar la exposición de este tipo de productos o por la autorregulación de los tiktokers para no ser expulsados de la red social.

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