Renal Embolization and Nephrectomy in a Single Surgical Act in High-Risk Renal Tumor Pathology
Materias Investigacion::Ciencias de la Salud::Cirugía
Renal tumor pathology
Renal Embolization
Issue Date: 
Rodríguez-Carvajal, R. (Rubén); Orgaz, A. (Antonio); Leal-Lorenzo, J.I. (José Ignacio); et al. "Renal Embolization and Nephrectomy in a Single Surgical Act in High-Risk Renal Tumor Pathology". Annals of Vascular Surgery. 25, 2011, 222 - 228
Background: Renal artery embolization is a procedure that has been shown to be useful as a concomitant treatment for the resection of large renal tumors. Over the years, preoperative renal artery embolization concomitant with nephrectomy as a treatment option has proved to be useful in reducing morbi-mortality rates; however this procedure is not exempt from signifi- cant iatrogenia. Performing this technique in conjunction with nephrectomy in a single surgical act helps to maintain the advantages of this treatment, which in turn considerably reduces the associated morbi-mortality rates. Methods: This study presents seven patients selected by the Urology Service in a nonconsecutive manner who underwent renal artery embolization concomitant with nephrectomy in a single surgical procedure for large renal tumors, thus presenting a variation to the usual techniques to improve and simplify the procedure. Results: General data were obtained from all patients including age, gender, characteristics of the tumor, and symptomatology at the time of diagnosis. For all the cases, use of resources was analyzed in terms of duration of surgery, the amount of iodinated contrast medium used during the embolization procedure, and the mean duration of hospital and intensive care unit stay. Complications were evaluated with respect to general morbi-mortality associated with the complete procedure, hematic losses during the procedure, transfusion requirements, and renal function (calculated by measuring preoperative and 48-hour postoperative serum creatinine levels). All patients reported having symptoms at the time of diagnosis, all of them had tumors measuring >13 cm in diameter (major). In all the cases, 100% technical success was obtained with the embolization and nephrectomy. The mean duration of surgery in the case of emboliza- tion with coils was 45 minutes, and 25 minutes in the case of embolization with Amplatzer. A mean volume of 115 mL of contrast medium was used in the case of embolization with coils, whereas for the other cases, a mean volume of 71 mL of iodinated contrast was used. Among all the patients, only two of them required to be cared at the intensive care unit during 24 hours. On an average, reported blood loss was 380 mL. During the procedure, two patients (28.6%) required a transfusion of two units of red cells. No cases of perioperative or postoperative mortality were reported. With respect to morbidity, only one patient (14.3%) experienced a complication in the form of a superficial infection of the surgical wound, which was later resolved by antibiotic therapy. One patient (14.3%) presented a slightly higher preintervention level of creatinine (1.42). Two patients (28.6%), both of whom underwent embolization by using coils, experienced deterioration of postoperative renal function.Conclusion: Preoperative embolization of the renal artery as a coadjuvant treatment option in high-risk renal neoplasia has clear technical benefits for the subsequent nephrectomy and also medical benefits for the patients. Performing both the procedures concomitantly as a single surgical act seems to retain the advantages of the embolization procedure, by reducing mortality rates and producing little associated morbidity. Technically, embolization with Amplatzer plugs seems to be faster and easier as compared with embolization with coils.

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