Mediterranean lifestyle index and 24-h systolic blood pressure and heart rate in community-dwelling older adults
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
24-h heart rate
Mediterranean lifestyle
Older adult
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Talavera-Rodríguez, I. (Irene); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); de-la-Cruz, J.J. (Juan J.); et al. "Mediterranean lifestyle index and 24-h systolic blood pressure and heart rate in community-dwelling older adults". GeroScience. 46, 2024, 1357 - 1369
Specific foods, nutrients, dietary patterns, and physical activity are associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), but little is known about the joint effect of lifestyle factors captured in a multidimensional score. We assessed the association of a validated Mediterranean-lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index with 24-h-ambulatory BP and HR in everyday life among community-living older adults. Data were taken from 2,184 individuals (51% females, mean age: 71.4 years) from the Seniors-ENRICA-2 cohort. The MEDLIFE index consisted of 29 items arranged in three blocks: 1) Food consumption; 2) Dietary habits; and 3) Physical activity, rest, and conviviality. A higher MEDLIFE score (0-29 points) represented a better Mediterranean lifestyle adherence. 24-h-ambulatory BP and HR were obtained with validated oscillometric devices. Analyses were performed with linear regression adjusted for the main confounders. The MEDLIFE-highest quintile (vs Q1) was associated with lower nighttime systolic BP (SBP) (-3.17 mmHg [95% CI: -5.25, -1.08]; p-trend = 0.011), greater nocturnal-SBP fall (1.67% [0.51, 2.83]; p-trend = 0.052), and lower HR (-2.04 bpm [daytime], -2.33 bpm [nighttime], and -1.93 bpm [24-h]; all p-trend < 0.001). Results were similar for each of the three blocks of MEDLIFE and by hypertension status (yes/no). Among older adults, higher adherence to MEDLIFE was associated with lower nighttime SBP, greater nocturnal-SBP fall, and lower HR in their everyday life. These results suggest a synergistic BP-related protection from the components of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Future studies should determine whether these results replicate in older adults from other Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries.

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