Can we all be Denmark? The role of civic attitudes in welfare state reforms
Keywords: 
Welfare state reform
Flexicurity
Civic attitudes
Benefts and tax morale
Social trust
Issue Date: 
2023
Publisher: 
Springer
ISSN: 
1573-6911
Note: 
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Citation: 
Celico, A. (Andrea); Rode, M. (Martin). "Can we all be Denmark? The role of civic attitudes in welfare state reforms". Empirica. 51, 2023, 87 - 125
Abstract
Research has demonstrated the economic effectiveness of welfare state reforms that follow the Danish flexicurity model, broadly specifying the combination of highly flexible labor market policies and generous protection schemes. Notwithstanding, it has also been argued that large and generous welfare states may erode civic attitudes, defined here as people’s willingness to cheat on taxes and claim transfers to which they are not entitled. Combining data from all available waves of the World Values Survey and the European Values Study with a self-constructed flexicurity index, this paper finds that welfare state reforms involving a combination of higher benefits, lower labor market regulations, and active labor market policies are not significantly associated with an erosion of civic attitudes.

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