Prieto J, Qian C, Sangro B, Melero I, Mazzolini G. Biologic therapy of liver tumors. Surg Clin North Am 2004 Apr;84(2):673-696.
Nonresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are common malignancies that lack therapies allowing substantial prolongation of survival. Recent progress in molecular and cell biology has opened the way to novel therapies based on biological modifiers, gene transfer, and autologous stem cells. It is now possible to transfer therapeutic genes to the tumor or pericancerous tissue, and to control their expression for long periods of time. It is also feasible to generate autologous endothelial progenitor cells that can be recruited by tumoral vessels acting as vehicles to convey therapeutic genes to the interior of the tumor mass. Combination of biological modifiers, gene therapy, and cell therapy will hopefully provide efficient means to combat inoperable neoplasms in a not-very-distant future.