Pollution monitoring in two urban areas of Cuba by using Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. and top soil samples: spatial distribution and sources
Tillandsia recurvata
Top soils
Major and trace elements
Cluster analysis
Urban pollution
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Morera-Gómez, Y. (Yasser); Alonso Hernández, C. M.; Armas Camejo, A.; et al. "Pollution monitoring in two urban areas of Cuba by using Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. and top soil samples: spatial distribution and sources". Ecological indicators. 126, 2021, 107667
This work provides a comprehensive report on the chemical composition of 47 major and trace elements in Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. and top soil samples from the cities of Cienfuegos and Santa Clara in Cuba. The main aims were to provide new information on the urban pollution degree in Caribbean urban regions where the availability of data of urban health indicators are very limited and to identify the main pollution sources. The abundance of the analyzed elements at both type of samples were different at each urban regions suggesting the influence of various sources. Top soils were slightly contaminated with Zn, V, Ba, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co and Hg and seriously contaminated with Ni and Cr in Santa Clara. These and other elements such as Se, S, P, Cd, Mo and Ca where highly enriched in T. recurvata indicating a significant impact of anthropogenic sources in the air quality of both urban areas. Cluster analysis helped us associate most of the elements with an anthropogenic origin with three main pollution sources: road traffic, industrial emissions and oil combustion. The spatial variability was particularly useful to identify some of these sources including the emissions from diesel and fuel oil combustion in power stations, biomass burning and metallurgic industries. The results also showed that V and Ni were strongly associated to the oil combustion and that V/Ni ratio indices in both indicators can be used to trace this type of sources. The results presented in this study confirmed the conclusion that both T. recurvata and top soils can be used as feasible indicators of the health of Caribbean urban ecosystems and the distribution of the main pollution sources that are affecting them.

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