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Maroto-García, J. (Julia); Martínez, A. (Ana); Delgado-Gil, V. (Virginia); et al. "Biochemical biomarkers for multiple sclerosis". Clinica Chimica Acta. 548, 2023, 117471
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system.
Although there is currently no definite cure for MS, new therapies have recently been developed based on a
continuous search for new biomarkers.
Development: MS diagnosis relies on the integration of clinical, imaging and laboratory findings as there is still no
single pathognomonic clinical feature or diagnostic laboratory biomarker. The most commonly laboratory test
used is the presence of immunoglobulin G oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. This test
is now included in the 2017 McDonald criteria as a biomarker of dissemination in time. Nevertheless, there are
other biomarkers currently in use such as kappa free light chain, which has shown higher sensitivity and
specificity for MS diagnosis than OCB. In addition, other potential laboratory tests involved in neuronal damage,
demyelination and/or inflammation could be used for detecting MS.
Conclusions: CSF and serum biomarkers have been reviewed for their use in MS diagnosis and prognosis to
stablish an accurate and prompt MS diagnosis, crucial to implement an adequate treatment and to optimize
clinical outcomes over time.