Patterns and management of distant failure in locally advanced rectal cancer a cohort study
Locally advanced rectal cancer
Liver metastases
Lung metastases
Neoadjuvant treatment
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Arredondo, J. (Jorge); Baixauli-Fons, J. (Jorge); Rodriguez, J. (Javier); et al. "Patterns and management of distant failure in locally advanced rectal cancer a cohort study". Clinical & translational oncology. 18 (9), 2016, 909 - 914
Purpose To determine the long-term outcomes of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) and surgery, and to analyze the management and survival once distant failure has developed. Methods Data from LARC patients treated from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. CRT protocols were based on fluoropirimidines ± oxaliplatin. Follow-up consisted of physical examination, carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and chest-abdominal-pelvic CT scan. Results The study included 228 patients with a mean age of 59 years. Forty-eight (21.1 %) patients had distant recurrence and 6 patients (2.6 %) had local recurrence. Median follow-up was 49 months. The 5- and 10-year actuarial disease free survival was 75.3 and 65.0 %, respectively. The 5- and 10-year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 89.6 and 71.2 %, respectively. Patients were classified as having liver (14 patients) or lung (27 patients) relapse according to the organ firstly metastasized. The variables significantly associated by univariate Cox analysis to survival were the achievement of an R0 metastases resection and the Köhne risk index, while the metastatic site showed a statistical trend. By multivariate Cox analysis, the only variable associated with survival was a R0 resection (HR = 16.3, p < 0.001). Median OS for patients undergoing a R0 resection was 73 months (95 % CI 67.8–78.2) compared to 25 months (95 % CI 5.47–44.5) in those non-operated patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions Combined treatment for LARC obtains a 5-year OS rounding 90 %. Follow-up based on thoracic-abdominal CT scan allows an early diagnosis of metastatic lesions. Surgical resection of metastases, regardless of their location, greatly increases the patient’s survival rate.

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