Knowledge, attitudes, behavioral and organizational factors of health professions students for a competent smoking cessation practice: An instrument adaptation and psychometric validation study in Spanish and English samples
Keywords: 
Health care services
Health professions students
Instrument development
Quality of care
Smoking cessation
Issue Date: 
2023
Publisher: 
Elsevier
ISSN: 
1873-5223
Note: 
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Citation: 
Pueyo-Garrigues, M. (María); Agüera, Z. (Zaida); Andrés, A. (Ana); et al. "Knowledge, attitudes, behavioral and organizational factors of health professions students for a competent smoking cessation practice: An instrument adaptation and psychometric validation study in Spanish and English samples". Nurse Education in Practice. 70 (103647), 2023,
Abstract
Background: To improve smoking cessation, training of health professions students is essential. However, no specific instrument is available to assess factors that may affect students' learning about smoking cessation practice. Aim: To adapt and validate the Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Organization questionnaire in the population of undergraduate health professions students. Design: Methodological research. Methods: The researchers conducted this study with 511 Spanish and 186 English health professions students from four different universities. We used a four-step approach: 1) adaptation of the items to the target population and validation of the content by a panel of experts; 2) a pilot study to test face validity; 3) linguistic adaptation of the Spanish version to English; and 4) the psychometric assessment based on construct validity, criterion validity and internal consistency. Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed four subscales for the Spanish version, namely 'Individual knowledge and skills', 'Individual attitudes and beliefs', 'Organizational support' and 'Organizational resources', which accounted for 85.1% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis in the holdout Spanish and English samples revealed adequate goodness-of-fit values, supporting the factor structure. Hypotheses testing demonstrated significant differences by capacitation in smoking cessation interventions and degree courses, providing further evidence regarding construct validity. All the subscales correlated positively with the criterion variables (5 A's smoking cessation model), except for the 'Organizational resources' subscale, which was not significantly correlated with the 5 A's. The overall Cronbach's alpha was.83 for the Spanish version and.88 for the English one. Conclusions: Our results provide empirical support for the use of the Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Organization questionnaire for Students as a reliable and valid instrument to assess knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and organization perceptions in health professions students, which is essential for competent smoking cessation practice. Interestingly, 'Organizational resources' subscale presented the lowest correlations among factors and did not correlate with any component of the 5 A's, suggesting the need of enhancing students' responsibility and involvement during their internships, as well as the interest of some organizations.

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