Exosomes in liquid biopsy: the nanometric world in the pursuit of precision oncology
Keywords: 
Exosomes
Cancer
Liquid biopsy
Biomarkers
Issue Date: 
2021
ISSN: 
2072-6694
Note: 
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/)
Citation: 
Valencia-Leoz, K. (Karmele); Montuenga-Badía, L. (Luis). "Exosomes in liquid biopsy: the nanometric world in the pursuit of precision oncology". Cancers. 13 (9), 2021, 2147
Abstract
Among the different components that can be analyzed in liquid biopsy, the utility of exosomes is particularly promising because of their presence in all biological fluids and their potential for multicomponent analyses. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with an average size of similar to 100 nm in diameter with an endosomal origin. All eukaryotic cells release exosomes as part of their active physiology. In an oncologic patient, up to 10% of all the circulating exosomes are estimated to be tumor-derived exosomes. Exosome content mirrors the features of its cell of origin in terms of DNA, RNA, lipids, metabolites, and cytosolic/cell-surface proteins. Due to their multifactorial content, exosomes constitute a unique tool to capture the complexity and enormous heterogeneity of cancer in a longitudinal manner. Due to molecular features such as high nucleic acid concentrations and elevated coverage of genomic driver gene sequences, exosomes will probably become the "gold standard" liquid biopsy analyte in the near future.

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