A survey of IIoT protocols: A measure of vulnerability risk analysis based on CVSS
Keywords: 
Industrial internet of things.
IIoT.
Risk analysis.
Industrial security.
Operational technologies.
Information technologies.
Issue Date: 
Apr-2020
Publisher: 
ACM
ISSN: 
0360-0300
Citation: 
Figueroa-Lorenzo, S., Añorga, J., & Arrizabalaga, S. (2020). A survey of IIoT protocols: A measure of vulnerability risk analysis based on CVSS. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 53(2), 1-53.
Abstract
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is present in many participants from the energy, health, manufacturing, transport, and public sectors. Many factors catalyze IIoT, such as robotics, artificial intelligence, and intelligent decentralized manufacturing. However, the convergence between IT, OT, and to I' environments involves the integration of heterogeneous technologies through protocols, standards, and buses. However, this integration brings with it security risks. To avoid the security risks, especially when systems in different environments interact, it is important and urgent to create an early consensus among the stakeholders on the IIoT security. The default Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) offers a mechanism to measure the severity of an asset's vulnerability and therefore a way to characterize the risk. However, CVSS by default has two drawbacks. On the one hand, to carry out a risk analysis, it is necessary to have additional metrics to the one established by CVSSv3.1. On the other hand, this index has been used mostly in IT environments and although there are numerous efforts to develop a model that suits industrial environments, there is no established proposal. Therefore, we first propose a survey of the main 33 protocols, standards, and buses used in an IIoT environment. This survey will focus on the security of each one. The second part of our study consists of the creation of a framework to characterize risk in industrial environments, i.e., to solve both problems of the CVSS index. To this end, we created the Vulnerability Analysis Framework (VAF), which is a methodology that allows the analysis of 1,363 vulnerabilities to establish a measure to describe the risk in IIoT environments.

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